Girl meets world fanfiction gains and loss
Riley, Maya and Lucas are still in a triangle. Does Maya still have feelings for Lucas? Or will she find a new love. A Girl Meets World Fanfiction. Things aren't.
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Girl Meets World- Riley admits she has a bully (emotional scene) - Girl Meets RileytownContent:
Make Sure Your Fan Fiction Is Legal (Or Regret It Later)
Significant amounts of copyrightable creative works such as motion pictures, television programs, music, and computer gaming works are produced in the United States.
In addition, a significant amount of fan fiction is created in the United States. For these reasons, although every nation's law is different and different laws may apply to different works of fan fiction, U. Under U. To have copyright protection under U. Copyright cannot be applied to ideas, concepts, facts or other broad principles regardless of whether they are expressed in a tangible medium or otherwise.
Copyright goes into effect automatically, even if a work is not published. According to current United States copyright , copyright owners have the exclusive right "to prepare derivative works based upon [their] copyrighted work. To prove infringement, an owner must present evidence establishing that the accused has copied protected elements of the original work.
The remedy is dependent on the harm done to the copyright owner, the intent of the infringing person, and the grievousness of the infringement. There, Sylvester Stallone successfully pursued an action for copyright infringement against Anderson, an author who wrote a proposed script for Rocky IV , by proving that the copyright-protected characters used in the previous Rocky movies were central to the new script.
The court enjoined Anderson from pursuing the creation of a movie or other published work based on his script. Fanfiction is not infringing if it constitutes fair use of the underlying copyrighted work.
In determining whether a particular use constitutes fair use, courts consider the following four factors:. Fair use is assessed on a case-by-case basis. While such genres as parody and criticism are enumerated by statute and case law as presumptively fair uses of a copyrighted work, fan fiction has not historically been recognized by U.
Batts permanently prohibited publication in the United States of a book by Swedish writer Fredrik Colting, whose protagonist is a year-old version of Holden Caulfield of J. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. Judge Batts explicitly rejected arguments of parody and criticism, stating,.
To the extent Defendants contend that 60 Years and the character of Mr. C direct parodic comment or criticism at Catcher or Holden Caulfield, as opposed to Salinger himself, the Court finds such contentions to be post-hoc rationalizations employed through vague generalizations about the alleged naivety of the original, rather than reasonably perceivable parody. The case was vacated and remanded by the U. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit with orders to apply the eBay v.
MercExchange test in determining whether publication of a work can be prohibited on a theory of intellectual property infringement before the case has gone to trial. In contrast, in Suntrust v. Houghton Mifflin Co. In determining whether Randall's work rose to the level of transformative, Circuit Judge Birch used the guidelines for transformative works laid out in the Supreme Court's Campbell v.
Acuff Rose Music. Separate from the legal issues raised by fanfiction's interaction with copyright law, legal issues may also develop from United States trademark law. Current federal trademark law follows the Lanham Act , otherwise known as the Trademark Act of Under the Lanham Act , a trademark is "any word, term, name, symbol, or device, or any combination thereof" used in commerce to identify a service or good.
Unlike copyright , however, trademark rights are not automatic. Thus, trademark rights may arise when a fictional character's name or likeness may serve to identify the source of an entertainment product or related good.
For example, the use of Mickey Mouse's name or likeness may serve to identify a particular book or toy as originating from Disney. One way to establish that a mark acts as a distinctive source identifier is to establish that the relevant purchasing public has developed a strong association between the mark and its originating source.
Different courts consider similar but not identical factors when deciding likelihood of confusion. Common factors that may be relevant to fanfiction include:. The courts can weigh the factors in individual cases, and may consider additional factors as they please.
To the extent that fanfiction uses source-identifying characters, settings and such, the marks are often well known are identical to the original, and are used in similar types of goods i. In this way, the first three factors relayed here weigh for the trademark holder. However, fanfiction writers generally do not intend to deceive the consuming public as to the source of the work, and often include prominent disclaimers at the outset of their works stating that the works are not the products of the original creators, both to honor the original creator and to prevent any possible confusion as to source.
In addition, as a consuming audience, fanfiction readers are generally sophisticated regarding works' status as fanfiction, and are aware that fanfiction is not written or endorsed by those who hold the trademarks.
Trademark holders may also allege that the use of trademarked characters, settings, etc. The concept of trademark dilution is that overuse or improper use of a mark, even when it does not create consumer confusion, can lessen the mark's uniqueness and value as a source identifier.
A dilution claim requires that the mark in question be famous throughout general consuming public and that the use of the mark create a likelihood of either "blurring" or "tarnishment. Even if a likelihood of confusion or dilution were found, trademark law provides various defenses to alleged infringement. These defenses fall into the categories of "fair use" and "First Amendment.
Trademark "fair use" differs significantly from fair use under copyright law. In trademark law there are two types of fair use : descriptive and nominative use. Descriptive fair use permits the use of a descriptive mark in a descriptive way; for example, an advertisement could say that a particular dress shoe "feels like a sneaker" even though the phrase "Looks like a pump, feels like a sneaker" is the trademark of another company.
For example, a news story about the New Kids on the Block can use the mark "New Kids on the Block" to identify the band. For this reason, fanfiction is harder to succeed on than an allegation of copyright infringement.
An additional defense to trademark infringement or dilution relies on the First Amendment guarantee of freedom of speech. Courts have shown reluctance to curtail creative uses of trademarks in expressive works. For example, in Mattel v. Because there was a relatively small likelihood of confusion, the Ninth Circuit held that the First Amendment protected Aqua's use of the mark.
An example of this is a parodic publication running a parody ad for a product, and the parody not being well done enough or labeled clearly enough for people to realize it is not a real ad. Because of these differences in the legal doctrines of trademark and copyright , trademark law is less likely to come into conflict with fanfiction. A brief note on non-U. Many countries, and some U. In the United States, rights of publicity are governed by state statutes and state common law, and thus vary from state to state.
As a general matter, the right of publicity grants a right to famous persons to control the commercial use of their "name, image and likeness,"  and sometimes extends to one's broader identity or persona. The case of White v. White prevailed under California law on the theory that although Samsung had not used her name or likeness, it had used a recognizable depiction of her persona without permission for its commercial gain. To date, though, no recorded right of publicity suits have been brought regarding noncommercial fan fiction about real persons.
In ETW v. Jireh , the U. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit rejected a right of publicity claim brought by Tiger Woods against an artist who depicted Woods and other golf legends, holding that the transformative nature of the work exempted it from right of publicity liability under the First Amendment.
LaFace , the U. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that the Outkast song " Rosa Parks " violated the civil rights icon's right of publicity because it was not sufficiently transformative.
The court explained that the use of a name or likeness is not transformative for right of publicity purposes when it "is used solely to attract attention to a work that is not related to the identified person. Citing Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. Houghton Mifflin , the authors wrote that "Similarly, many Mary Sues comment on or criticize the original, while at the same time create something new Mary Sues can be commercial and still be fair. That year, a group of fans who engage in creating fan works and are part of the larger fan community founded the Organization for Transformative Works OTW.
OTW's position is that fan fiction and other fan labor products constitute copyright fair use under 17 U. All fan fiction on the site is recognized as non-profit derivative works. Fans have many different views on the legalities of fan works, from the pure question of whether these works are transformative, to differences in how fans feel fan works should be disseminated.
Fan writers who argue that their work is legal through the fair use doctrine use specific fair use arguments in the context of fan works, such as:.
OTW is also not the only organization to support the idea that fan works are transformative. In Salinger v. Colting , the New York Times  and other major media conglomerates filed an amicus brief supporting Colting's book, as did the Library Copyright Alliance. Most major studios and production companies tolerate fan fiction, and some even encourage it to a certain extent.
Due to the ongoing nature of television production, some television producers have implemented constraints, one example being Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski. His demand that Babylon 5 fan fiction be clearly labeled or kept off the Internet confined most of the Babylon 5 fan fiction community to mailing lists during the show's initial run. Many writers and producers state that they do not read fan fiction, citing a fear of being accused of stealing a fan's ideas, but encourage its creation nonetheless.
When Buffy the Vampire Slayer went off the air, for instance, creator Joss Whedon encouraged fans to read fan fiction during the show's timeslot. While many authors, e. Neil Gaiman , J. Rowling , D. MacHale , Stephenie Meyer , Terry Pratchett do not take issue with authors of derivative works, a number of authors do. They may request that fan fiction archival sites remove and ban any pieces of fan fiction based on their original works.
To date, no fan fiction archive has failed to comply with an author's request to remove works, and many archives feature a full list of authors whose work cannot be the source of a fan fiction on their site. Fan fiction hosting sites like MediaMiner and Fanfiction. No copyright owner has to allow fan fiction or even tolerate it. Rowling has also complained about sexually explicit Harry Potter fan fiction. Rowling specifically noted that she has "no complaint about innocent fan fiction written by genuine Harry Potter fans"  and she "is happy for spin-offs to be published online as long as the publications are not sold and it is made clear she was not involved in the stories", under the condition that they do not contain pornography or racism.
Sorry guys! There haven't been any updates or responses because I was working on this little monster piece. But I'm done soooo yeah :.
Girl Meets World Fanfictions
Significant amounts of copyrightable creative works such as motion pictures, television programs, music, and computer gaming works are produced in the United States. In addition, a significant amount of fan fiction is created in the United States. For these reasons, although every nation's law is different and different laws may apply to different works of fan fiction, U. Under U. To have copyright protection under U. Copyright cannot be applied to ideas, concepts, facts or other broad principles regardless of whether they are expressed in a tangible medium or otherwise. Copyright goes into effect automatically, even if a work is not published. According to current United States copyright , copyright owners have the exclusive right "to prepare derivative works based upon [their] copyrighted work. To prove infringement, an owner must present evidence establishing that the accused has copied protected elements of the original work.
Legal issues with fan fiction
Image: Matthew Loffhagen. Some stories involve us so deeply that they can no longer be enjoyed passively: a character or setting grabs a reader in a way that only creation can satisfy. In fact, the quality is frequently high enough to sustain entire communities who share, appreciate, and write fan fiction. The fly in the ointment is that fan fiction deals with legally protected works.
Topanga Matthews was a smart woman. If you miss me then you should do something about it. Get out of my head. I made your hair a mess.
The beloved sitcom block offered a few hours of fun and comfort for everyone, offering glimpses of families and friends in all kinds of life situations. It had an epic friendship, a love story worth rooting for, and just the right amount of silliness to rope in viewers of all ages. Cory Matthews and Topanga Lawrence overcame a lot of obstacles: Lauren from the ski resort, the artist who wooed Topanga with Starry Night, Topanga moving to Pittsburgh, and so many others. One obstacle they couldn't possibly know they were facing, however, was a business-minded one.
This book is the first to explore style and spectacle in glam popular music performance from the s to the present day, and from an international perspective. Focus is given to a number of representative artists, bands, and movements, as well as national, regional, and cultural contexts from around the globe. Rex, Slade, and Roxy Music. In a global context, glam is represented in many other cultures, where the influences of early glam rock can be seen clearly. In this book, glam exists at the intersections of glam rock and other styles e. Its performers are characterized by their flamboyant and theatrical appearance clothes, costumes, makeup, hairstyles , they often challenge gender stereotypes and sexuality androgyny , and they create spectacle in popular music performance, fandom, and fashion.